From Dictionnaire Infernal
Kidney stone removal has four procedures/methods:
1. Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy (ESWL)
Kidney stone removal of ESWL uses non-electrical shock waves that are produced out of the body to pass through the skin and the body tissues until the shockwaves hit the solid stones. The stones turn out to be sand-like and are passed.
For elimination of this procedure, patient acre located in a tub of warm, purified water or onto water cushion machine that operates as a way for passing on these non-electrical shockwaves.
2. Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PNL)
Different from removal method mentioned above, Percutaneous nephrolithotomy is regularly utilized once the stone is large or in a place that does not permit effectual utilization of ESWL.
In this procedure of kidney stone removal, choices makes an insignificant incision in the back and makes a tunnel immediately into the kidney. By way of an instrument known as a nephroscope, the stone lies and removed. For big stones, a power probe (ultrasonic or electrohydraulic) perhaps necessary to break down the stone into smaller pieces for removal.
The advantage of this procedure over lithotripsy may be the physical removal of the stone fragments instead of relying on their natural passage in the kidney to the outside.
3. Ureteroscopic Stone Removal
Ureteroscopic stone removal is accomplished by passing a small fiberoptic instrument (an ureteroscope) through the urethra and bladder in to the ureter. The surgeon afterward locates the stone and either removes it with a cage-like tool or breaks it with a particular instrument that produces a form of shockwave. A small tube (or stent) possibly left in the ureter for more than a couple of days after treatment to help the lining from the ureter to heal.
This removal procedure is operated under common anesthesia to deal with stones found in the middle minimizing ureter. Small stones are removed and large stones are broken by a laser or similar device.
4. Open (incisional) Surgery
This last removal method includes opening the affected area and taking out the stone(s). Within this procedure, run in an operating room following a person has been given anesthesia, the surgeon creates a cut in the skin and unlocks the pelvis of the kidney or even the ureter in order that the stone could be manually removed. Since open surgery is a principal operation, healing may need four to six weeks.